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Amsterdam Holland

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The shortages sparked riots in which several people were killed. These riots are known as the Aardappeloproer Potato rebellion. People started looting stores and warehouses in order to get supplies, mainly food.

On 1 January , after a flood in , the depleted municipalities of Durgerdam, Holysloot, Zunderdorp and Schellingwoude , all lying north of Amsterdam, were, at their own request, annexed to the city.

Nazi Germany invaded the Netherlands on 10 May and took control of the country. Some Amsterdam citizens sheltered Jews, thereby exposing themselves and their families to a high risk of being imprisoned or sent to concentration camps.

More than , Dutch Jews were deported to Nazi concentration camps , of whom some 60, lived in Amsterdam.

In response, the Dutch Communist Party organised the February strike attended by , people to protest against the raids. Perhaps the most famous deportee was the young Jewish girl Anne Frank , who died in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.

Many citizens travelled to the countryside to forage. Dogs, cats, raw sugar beets, and tulip bulbs—cooked to a pulp—were consumed to stay alive.

Because of the war and other events of the 20th century, almost the entire city centre had fallen into disrepair.

As society was changing, [ clarification needed ] politicians and other influential figures made plans to redesign large parts of it.

There was an increasing demand for office buildings, and also for new roads, as the automobile became available to most people.

Further plans were to build a new highway above the metro to connect Amsterdam Centraal and city centre with other parts of the city. The required large-scale demolitions began in Amsterdam's former Jewish neighbourhood.

Smaller streets, such as the Jodenbreestraat and Weesperstraat, were widened and almost all houses and buildings were demolished.

At the peak of the demolition, the Nieuwmarktrellen Nieuwmarkt Riots broke out; [48] the rioters expressed their fury about the demolition caused by the restructuring of the city.

As a result, the demolition was stopped and the highway into the city's centre was never fully built; only the metro was completed.

Only a few streets remained widened. The new city hall was built on the almost completely demolished Waterlooplein. Meanwhile, large private organisations, such as Stadsherstel Amsterdam , were founded to restore the entire city centre.

Although the success of this struggle is visible today, efforts for further restoration are still ongoing. In the early years of the 21st century, the Amsterdam city centre has attracted large numbers of tourists: between and , the annual number of visitors rose from 10 million to 17 million.

Real estate prices have surged, and local shops are making way for tourist-oriented ones, making the centre unaffordable for the city's inhabitants.

Construction of a metro line connecting the part of the city north of the river or lake IJ to the centre was started in The project was controversial because its cost had exceeded its budget by a factor three by , [55] because of fears of damage to buildings in the centre, and because construction had to be halted and restarted multiple times.

Since , renewed focus has been given to urban regeneration and renewal, especially in areas directly bordering the city centre, such as Frederik Hendrikbuurt.

This urban renewal and expansion of the traditional centre of the city—with the construction on artificial islands of the new eastern IJburg neighbourhood—is part of the Structural Vision Amsterdam initiative.

Amsterdam is located in the Western Netherlands, in the province of North Holland , although it is not its capital which is Haarlem.

The river Amstel ends in the city centre and connects to a large number of canals that eventually terminate in the IJ.

Amsterdam is about 2 metres 6. A man-made forest, Amsterdamse Bos , is in the southwest. Amsterdam is intensely urbanised, as is the Amsterdam metropolitan area surrounding the city.

Comprising Amsterdam has more than kilometres 60 miles of canals , most of which are navigable by boat. The city's three main canals are the Prinsengracht, Herengracht, and Keizersgracht.

In the Middle Ages , Amsterdam was surrounded by a moat, called the Singel , which now forms the innermost ring in the city, and gives the city centre a horseshoe shape.

The city is also served by a seaport. It has been compared with Venice , due to its division into about 90 islands, which are linked by more than 1, bridges.

Amsterdam has an oceanic climate Köppen Cfb [64] strongly influenced by its proximity to the North Sea to the west, with prevailing westerly winds.

While winters are cool and summers warm, temperatures vary year by year. There can occasionally be cold snowy winters and hot humid summers.

Frosts mainly occur during spells of easterly or northeasterly winds from the inner European continent. Summers are moderately warm with a number of hot days every month.

The average daily high in August is Cloudy and damp days are common during the cooler months of October through March.

In , Amsterdam's population was around 1, people. This changed when, during the Dutch Revolt , many people from the Southern Netherlands fled to the North, especially after Antwerp fell to Spanish forces in In , Amsterdam was the fourth largest city in western Europe , behind London , , Paris , and Naples , In contrast to those other metropolises, Amsterdam was also surrounded by large towns such as Leiden about 67, , Rotterdam 45, , Haarlem 38, , and Utrecht 30, The city's population declined in the early 19th century, [81] dipping under , in Also in the s, much of Amsterdam's population growth was due to immigration to the city.

The Westphalians came to Amsterdam mostly for economic reasons — their influx continued through the 18th and 19th centuries.

Just twenty percent of them survived the Shoah. The first mass immigration in the 20th century were by people from Indonesia, who came to Amsterdam after the independence of the Dutch East Indies in the s and s.

After the independence of Suriname in , a large wave of Surinamese settled in Amsterdam, mostly in the Bijlmer area.

Other immigrants, including refugees asylum seekers and illegal immigrants , came from Europe, America , Asia, and Africa.

In the s and s, many 'old' Amsterdammers moved to 'new' cities like Almere and Purmerend , prompted by the third planological bill of the Dutch government.

This bill promoted suburbanisation and arranged for new developments in so-called "groeikernen", literally cores of growth. Young professionals and artists moved into neighbourhoods de Pijp and the Jordaan abandoned by these Amsterdammers.

The non-Western immigrants settled mostly in the social housing projects in Amsterdam-West and the Bijlmer. Only one in three inhabitants under 15 is an autochtoon , or a person who has two parents of Dutch origin.

Religion in Amsterdam []. In , the largely Roman Catholic city of Amsterdam joined the revolt against Spanish rule, [] late in comparison to other major northern Dutch cities.

Catholics, some Jewish and dissenting Protestants worshiped in such buildings. In , the first synagogue was consecrated.

As they became established in the city, other Christian denominations used converted Catholic chapels to conduct their own services.

The oldest English-language church congregation in the world outside the United Kingdom is found at the Begijnhof.

Some, commonly referred by the moniker 'Walloon', are recognisable today as they offer occasional services in French.

In the second half of the 17th century, Amsterdam experienced an influx of Ashkenazim , Jews from Central and Eastern Europe.

Jews often fled the pogroms in those areas. They not only founded their own synagogues, but had a strong influence on the 'Amsterdam dialect' adding a large Yiddish local vocabulary.

Despite an absence of an official Jewish ghetto , most Jews preferred to live in the eastern part of the old medieval heart of the city.

The main street of this Jewish neighbourhood was the Jodenbreestraat. The neighbourhood comprised the Waterlooplein and the Nieuwmarkt.

This led to riots, and as a result the original plans for large-scale reconstruction were abandoned. Catholic churches in Amsterdam have been constructed since the restoration of the episcopal hierarchy in In , the Roman Catholic Church of the Netherlands hosted the International Eucharistic Congress in Amsterdam, [] and numerous Catholic prelates visited the city, where festivities were held in churches and stadiums.

In recent times, religious demographics in Amsterdam have been changed by immigration from former colonies. Hinduism has been introduced from the Hindu diaspora from Suriname [] and several distinct branches of Islam have been brought from various parts of the world.

Amsterdam experienced an influx of religions and cultures after the Second World War. With different nationalities, [] Amsterdam is home to one of the widest varieties of nationalities of any city in the world.

Amsterdam has been one of the municipalities in the Netherlands which provided immigrants with extensive and free Dutch-language courses, which have benefited many immigrants.

Amsterdam fans out south from the Amsterdam Centraal railway station and Damrak , the main street off the station. It lies to the east of Damrak and contains the city's famous red-light district.

To the south of De Wallen is the old Jewish quarter of Waterlooplein. The medieval and colonial age canals of Amsterdam , known as grachten , embraces the heart of the city where homes have interesting gables.

Beyond the Grachtengordel are the former working class areas of Jordaan and de Pijp. The Museumplein with the city's major museums, the Vondelpark , a 19th-century park named after the Dutch writer Joost van den Vondel , and the Plantage neighbourhood, with the zoo , are also located outside the Grachtengordel.

Several parts of the city and the surrounding urban area are polders. This can be recognised by the suffix -meer which means lake , as in Aalsmeer , Bijlmermeer , Haarlemmermeer , and Watergraafsmeer.

The Amsterdam canal system is the result of conscious city planning. Known as the Grachtengordel , three of the canals were mostly for residential development: the Herengracht where "Heren" refers to Heren Regeerders van de stad Amsterdam ruling lords of Amsterdam , and gracht means canal, so the name can be roughly translated as "Canal of the Lords" , Keizersgracht Emperor's Canal , and Prinsengracht Prince's Canal.

The Singelgracht should not be confused with the oldest and innermost canal, the Singel. The canals served for defence, water management and transport.

The defences took the form of a moat and earthen dikes , with gates at transit points, but otherwise no masonry superstructures.

Construction started in and proceeded from west to east, across the breadth of the layout, like a gigantic windshield wiper as the historian Geert Mak calls it — and not from the centre outwards, as a popular myth has it.

The canal construction in the southern sector was completed by Subsequently, the construction of residential buildings proceeded slowly.

The eastern part of the concentric canal plan, covering the area between the Amstel river and the IJ bay, has never been implemented.

In the following centuries, the land was used for parks, senior citizens' homes, theatres, other public facilities, and waterways without much planning.

After the development of Amsterdam's canals in the 17th century, the city did not grow beyond its borders for two centuries.

During the 19th century, Samuel Sarphati devised a plan based on the grandeur of Paris and London at that time.

The plan envisaged the construction of new houses, public buildings and streets just outside the Grachtengordel. The main aim of the plan, however, was to improve public health.

Although the plan did not expand the city, it did produce some of the largest public buildings to date, like the Paleis voor Volksvlijt.

Following Sarphati, civil engineers Jacobus van Niftrik and Jan Kalff designed an entire ring of 19th-century neighbourhoods surrounding the city's centre, with the city preserving the ownership of all land outside the 17th-century limit, thus firmly controlling development.

In response to overcrowding, two plans were designed at the beginning of the 20th century which were very different from anything Amsterdam had ever seen before: Plan Zuid , designed by the architect Berlage , and West.

These plans involved the development of new neighbourhoods consisting of housing blocks for all social classes. After the Second World War, large new neighbourhoods were built in the western, southeastern, and northern parts of the city.

These new neighbourhoods were built to relieve the city's shortage of living space and give people affordable houses with modern conveniences.

The neighbourhoods consisted mainly of large housing blocks situated among green spaces, connected to wide roads, making the neighbourhoods easily accessible by motor car.

The western suburbs which were built in that period are collectively called the Westelijke Tuinsteden. The area to the southeast of the city built during the same period is known as the Bijlmer.

Amsterdam has a rich architectural history. It was constructed around and is one of only two existing wooden buildings.

It is also one of the few examples of Gothic architecture in Amsterdam. The oldest stone building of the Netherlands, The Moriaan is build in 's-Hertogenbosch.

In the 16th century, wooden buildings were razed and replaced with brick ones. During this period, many buildings were constructed in the architectural style of the Renaissance.

Amsterdam quickly developed its own Renaissance architecture. These buildings were built according to the principles of the architect Hendrick de Keyser.

In the 17th century baroque architecture became very popular, as it was elsewhere in Europe. This roughly coincided with Amsterdam's Golden Age.

Philip Vingboons designed splendid merchants' houses throughout the city. Throughout the 18th century, Amsterdam was heavily influenced by French culture.

This is reflected in the architecture of that period. Around , architects broke with the baroque style and started building in different neo-styles.

At the end of the 19th century, the Jugendstil or Art Nouveau style became popular and many new buildings were constructed in this architectural style.

Since Amsterdam expanded rapidly during this period, new buildings adjacent to the city centre were also built in this style.

The last style that was popular in Amsterdam before the modern era was Art Deco. Amsterdam had its own version of the style, which was called the Amsterdamse School.

Whole districts were built this style, such as the Rivierenbuurt. The old city centre is the focal point of all the architectural styles before the end of the 19th century.

Jugendstil and Georgian are mostly found outside the city's centre in the neighbourhoods built in the early 20th century, although there are also some striking examples of these styles in the city centre.

Most historic buildings in the city centre and nearby are houses, such as the famous merchants' houses lining the canals. Amsterdam has many parks, open spaces, and squares throughout the city.

The Vondelpark , the largest park in the city, is located in the Oud-Zuid neighbourhood and is named after the 17th-century Amsterdam author Joost van den Vondel.

Yearly, the park has around 10 million visitors. In the park is an open-air theatre, a playground and several horeca facilities.

In the Zuid borough, is the Beatrixpark, named after Queen Beatrix. Annually, almost 4. Other parks include the Sarphatipark in the De Pijp neighbourhood, the Oosterpark in the Oost borough and the Westerpark in the Westerpark neighbourhood.

The city has many open squares plein in Dutch. The namesake of the city as the site of the original dam, Dam Square , is the main city square and has the Royal Palace and National Monument.

Also, near to Amsterdam is the Nekkeveld estate conservation project. Amsterdam is the financial and business capital of the Netherlands.

Although many small offices remain along the historic canals , centrally based companies have increasingly relocated outside Amsterdam's city centre.

Consequently, the Zuidas English: South Axis has become the new financial and legal hub of Amsterdam, [] with the country's five largest law firms and a number of subsidiaries of large consulting firms, such as Boston Consulting Group and Accenture , as well as the World Trade Centre Amsterdam located in the Zuidas district.

In addition to the Zuidas, there are three smaller financial districts in Amsterdam:. Other non-Dutch companies have chosen to settle in communities surrounding Amsterdam since they allow freehold property ownership, whereas Amsterdam retains ground rent.

The Port of Amsterdam is the fourth largest port in Europe, the 38th largest port in the world and the second largest port in the Netherlands by metric tons of cargo.

Amsterdam has the biggest cruise port in the Netherlands with more than cruise ships every year. It is near Dam Square in the city centre.

Amsterdam is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Europe, receiving more than 4. This can be attributed to an increasing number of European visitors.

Two-thirds of the hotels are located in the city's centre. For example, the year was designated "Rembrandt ", to celebrate the th birthday of Rembrandt van Rijn.

Some hotels offer special arrangements or activities during these years. The average number of guests per year staying at the four campsites around the city range from 12, to 65, De Wallen, also known as Walletjes or Rosse Buurt, is a designated area for legalised prostitution and is Amsterdam's largest and most well known red-light district.

This neighbourhood has become a famous attraction for tourists. It consists of a network of roads and alleys containing several hundred small, one-room apartments rented by sex workers who offer their services from behind a window or glass door, typically illuminated with red lights.

In recent years the city government has been closing and repurposing the famous red light district windows in an effort to clean up the area and reduce the amount of party and sex tourism.

Shops in Amsterdam range from large high end department stores such as De Bijenkorf founded in to small specialty shops.

Amsterdam's high-end shops are found in the streets P. Hooftstraat [] and Cornelis Schuytstraat , which are located in the vicinity of the Vondelpark.

One of Amsterdam's busiest high streets is the narrow, medieval Kalverstraat in the heart of the city. Other shopping areas include the Negen Straatjes and Haarlemmerdijk and Haarlemmerstraat.

Negen Straatjes are nine narrow streets within the Grachtengordel , the concentric canal system of Amsterdam.

The Negen Straatjes differ from other shopping districts with the presence of a large diversity of privately owned shops.

The Haarlemmerstraat and Haarlemmerdijk were voted best shopping street in the Netherlands in These streets have as the Negen Straatjes a large diversity of privately owned shops.

But as the Negen Straatjes are dominated by fashion stores the Haarlemmerstraat and Haarlemmerdijk offer a very wide variety of all kinds of stores, just to name some specialties: candy and other food related stores, lingerie, sneakers, wedding clothing, interior shops, books, Italian deli's, racing and mountain bikes, skatewear, etc.

The city also features a large number of open-air markets such as the Albert Cuyp Market , Westerstraat-markt, Ten Katemarkt, and Dappermarkt.

Some of these markets are held daily, like the Albert Cuypmarkt and the Dappermarkt. Others, like the Westerstraatmarkt, are held every week.

Several fashion brands and designers are based in Amsterdam. Amsterdam has its garment centre in the World Fashion Center.

During the later part of the 16th-century, Amsterdam's Rederijkerskamer Chamber of rhetoric organised contests between different Chambers in the reading of poetry and drama.

While Amsterdam was under the influence of German music in the 19th century there were few national opera productions; [ citation needed ] the Hollandse Opera of Amsterdam was built in for the specific purpose of promoting Dutch opera.

Many people who work in the television industry live in Amsterdam. The most important museums of Amsterdam are located on the Museumplein Museum Square , located at the southwestern side of the Rijksmuseum.

It was created in the last quarter of the 19th century on the grounds of the former World's fair. The northeastern part of the square is bordered by the very large Rijksmuseum.

In front of the Rijksmuseum on the square itself is a long, rectangular pond. This is transformed into an ice rink in winter.

The southwestern border of the Museum Square is the Van Baerlestraat, which is a major thoroughfare in this part of Amsterdam.

The Concertgebouw is situated across this street from the square. To the southeast of the square are situated several large houses, one of which contains the American consulate.

A parking garage can be found underneath the square, as well as a supermarket. The Museumplein is covered almost entirely with a lawn, except for the northeastern part of the square which is covered with gravel.

The current appearance of the square was realised in , when the square was remodelled. The square itself is the most prominent site in Amsterdam for festivals and outdoor concerts, especially in the summer.

Plans were made in to remodel the square again, because many inhabitants of Amsterdam are not happy with its current appearance.

The Rijksmuseum possesses the largest and most important collection of classical Dutch art. Its collection consists of nearly one million objects.

Rembrandt's masterpiece The Night Watch is one of the top pieces of art of the museum. Aside from paintings, the collection consists of a large variety of decorative art.

This ranges from Delftware to giant doll-houses from the 17th century. The architect of the gothic revival building was P.

The museum underwent a year, million euro renovation starting in The full collection was reopened to the public on 13 April and the Rijksmuseum has remained the most visited museum in Amsterdam with 2.

Van Gogh lived in Amsterdam for a short while and there is a museum dedicated to his work. The museum is housed in one of the few modern buildings in this area of Amsterdam.

The building was designed by Gerrit Rietveld. This building is where the permanent collection is displayed.

A new building was added to the museum in This building, known as the performance wing, was designed by Japanese architect Kisho Kurokawa.

Its purpose is to house temporary exhibitions of the museum. Next to the Van Gogh museum stands the Stedelijk Museum. This is Amsterdam's most important museum of modern art.

The museum is as old as the square it borders and was opened in The permanent collection consists of works of art from artists like Piet Mondriaan , Karel Appel , and Kazimir Malevich.

After renovations lasting several years the museum opened in September with a new composite extension that has been called 'The Bathtub' due to its resemblance to one.

Amsterdam contains many other museums throughout the city. The modern-styled Nemo is dedicated to child-friendly science exhibitions. Amsterdam's musical culture includes a large collection of songs that treat the city nostalgically and lovingly.

The song "Aan de Amsterdamse grachten" "On the canals of Amsterdam" was performed and recorded by many artists, including John Kraaijkamp Sr.

In the s Johnny Jordaan rose to fame with " Geef mij maar Amsterdam " "I prefer Amsterdam" , which praises the city above all others explicitly Paris ; Jordaan sang especially about his own neighbourhood, the Jordaan "Bij ons in de Jordaan".

Another notable Amsterdam song is " Amsterdam " by Jacques Brel Its main purpose is to serve as a podium for pop concerts for big audiences.

Many famous international artists have performed there. Two other notable venues, Paradiso and the Melkweg are located near the Leidseplein.

Jazz has a strong following in Amsterdam, with the Bimhuis being the premier venue. In , Ziggo Dome was opened, also near Amsterdam Arena, a state-of-the-art indoor music arena.

AFAS Live is also host to many electronic dance music festivals, alongside many other venues. Each year in October, the city hosts the Amsterdam Dance Event ADE which is one of the leading electronic music conferences and one of the biggest club festivals for electronic music in the world, attracting over , visitors each year.

Amsterdam has a world-class symphony orchestra, the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra. It is considered by critics to be a concert hall with some of the best acoustics in the world.

Some nine hundred concerts and other events per year take place in the Concertgebouw, for a public of over ,, making it one of the most-visited concert halls in the world.

Therefore, the two buildings combined are often called the Stopera , a word originally coined by protesters against it very construction: Stop the Opera[-house].

This huge modern complex, opened in , lies in the former Jewish neighbourhood at Waterlooplein next to the river Amstel.

Muziekgebouw aan 't IJ is a concert hall, which is situated in the IJ near the central station. Its concerts perform mostly modern classical music.

Located adjacent to it, is the Bimhuis , a concert hall for improvised and Jazz music. The Stadsschouwburg at the Leidseplein is the home base of Toneelgroep Amsterdam.

The current building dates from Most plays are performed in the Grote Zaal Great Hall. The normal programme of events encompasses all sorts of theatrical forms.

The Stadsschouwburg is currently being renovated and expanded. The third theatre space, to be operated jointly with next door Melkweg , will open in late or early The recently re-opened DeLaMar Theater houses the more commercial plays and musicals.

A new theatre has also moved into Amsterdam scene in , joining other established venues: Theater Amsterdam is situated in the west part of Amsterdam, on the Danzigerkade.

It is housed in a modern building with a panoramic view over the harbour. The theatre is the first ever purpose-built venue to showcase a single play entitled ANNE, the play based on Anne Frank's life.

On the east side of town, there is a small theatre in a converted bath house, the Badhuistheater. The theatre often has English programming.

The Netherlands has a tradition of cabaret or kleinkunst , which combines music, storytelling, commentary, theatre and comedy.

Cabaret dates back to the s and artists like Wim Kan , Wim Sonneveld and Toon Hermans were pioneers of this form of art in the Netherlands.

The English spoken comedy scene was established with the founding of Boom Chicago in They have their own theatre at Leidseplein.

Amsterdam is famous for its vibrant and diverse nightlife. They range from large and modern to small and cozy. A common sight on the Leidseplein during summer is a square full of terraces packed with people drinking beer or wine.

Many restaurants can be found in Amsterdam as well. Since Amsterdam is a multicultural city, a lot of different ethnic restaurants can be found.

Restaurants range from being rather luxurious and expensive to being ordinary and affordable. The two main nightlife areas for tourists are the Leidseplein and the Rembrandtplein.

In recent years 'hour' clubs opened their doors, most notably Radion De School, Shelter and Marktkantine. Bimhuis located near the Central Station, with its rich programming hosting the best in the field is considered one of the best jazz clubs in the world.

In , there were festivals and events in Amsterdam. On Koningsdag—that is held each year on 27 April—hundreds of thousands of people travel to Amsterdam to celebrate with the city's residents.

The entire city becomes overcrowded with people buying products from the freemarket, or visiting one of the many music concerts.

The yearly Holland Festival attracts international artists and visitors from all over Europe. It offers previews of many different artists, such as musicians and poets, who perform on podia.

The stadium Johan Cruyff Arena is the home of Ajax. It is located in the south-east of the city next to the new Amsterdam Bijlmer ArenA railway station.

Before moving to their current location in , Ajax played their regular matches in the now demolished De Meer Stadion in the eastern part of the city [] or in the Olympic Stadium.

In , Amsterdam hosted the Summer Olympics. The Olympic Stadium built for the occasion has been completely restored and is now used for cultural and sporting events, such as the Amsterdam Marathon.

The ice hockey team Amstel Tijgers play in the Jaap Eden ice rink. The team competes in the Dutch ice hockey premier league.

Speed skating championships have been held on the metre lane of this ice rink. Amsterdam holds two American football franchises: the Amsterdam Crusaders and the Amsterdam Panthers.

The basketball team MyGuide Amsterdam competes in the Dutch premier division and play their games in the Sporthallen Zuid.

Since , the city of Amsterdam honours the best sportsmen and women at the Amsterdam Sports Awards. Boxer Raymond Joval and field hockey midfielder Carole Thate were the first to receive the awards, in Amsterdam hosted the World Gymnaestrada in and will do so again in The city of Amsterdam is a municipality under the Dutch Municipalities Act.

It is governed by a directly elected municipal council , a municipal executive board and a mayor. Since , the municipality of Amsterdam has gradually been divided into semi-autonomous boroughs , called stadsdelen or 'districts'.

Over time, a total of 15 boroughs were created. In May , under a major reform, the number of Amsterdam boroughs was reduced to eight: Amsterdam-Centrum covering the city centre including the canal belt , Amsterdam-Noord consisting of the neighbourhoods north of the IJ lake , Amsterdam-Oost in the east, Amsterdam-Zuid in the south, Amsterdam-West in the west, Amsterdam Nieuw-West in the far west, Amsterdam Zuidoost in the southeast, and Westpoort covering the Port of Amsterdam area.

As with all Dutch municipalities, Amsterdam is governed by a directly elected municipal council , a municipal executive board and a government appointed [] mayor burgemeester.

The mayor is a member of the municipal executive board, but also has individual responsibilies in maintaining public order.

On 27 June , Femke Halsema former member of House of Representatives for GroenLinks from to was appointed as the first woman to be Mayor of Amsterdam by the King's Commissioner of North Holland for a six-year term after being nominated by the Amsterdam municipal council and began serving a six-year term on 12 July On 18 September , it was announced by Eberhard van der Laan in an open letter to Amsterdam citizens that Kajsa Ollongren would take up his office as acting Mayor of Amsterdam with immediate effect due to ill health.

Unlike most other Dutch municipalities, Amsterdam is subdivided into eight boroughs , called stadsdelen or 'districts', a system that was implemented gradually in the s to improve local governance.

The boroughs are responsible for many activities that had previously been run by the central city.

In , the number of Amsterdam boroughs reached fifteen. Fourteen of those had their own district council deelraad , elected by a popular vote.

The fifteenth, Westpoort , covers the harbour of Amsterdam and had very few residents. Therefore, it was governed by the central municipal council.

Under the borough system, municipal decisions are made at borough level, except for those affairs pertaining to the whole city such as major infrastructure projects, which are the jurisdiction of the central municipal authorities.

In , the borough system was restructured, in which many smaller boroughs merged into larger boroughs.

In , under a reform of the Dutch Municipalities Act, the Amsterdam boroughs lost much of their autonomous status, as their district councils were abolished.

The municipal council of Amsterdam voted to maintain the borough system by replacing the district councils with smaller, but still directly elected district committees bestuurscommissies.

Under a municipal ordinance, the new district committees were granted responsibilities through delegation of regulatory and executive powers by the central municipal council.

Colloquially, some areas within the municipality, such as the town of Durgerdam , may not be considered part of Amsterdam.

The city region is similar to Greater Amsterdam but includes the municipalities of Zaanstad and Wormerland. It excludes Graft-De Rijp. The smallest of these areas is the municipality of Amsterdam with a population of , in The largest area by population, the Amsterdam Metropolitan Area Dutch: Metropoolregio Amsterdam , has a population of 2,33 million.

Amsterdam is part of the conglomerate metropolitan area Randstad , with a total population of 6,, inhabitants. Of these various metropolitan area configurations, only the Stadsregio Amsterdam City Region of Amsterdam has a formal governmental status.

Its responsibities include regional spatial planning and the metropolitan public transport concessions. Under the Dutch Constitution , Amsterdam is the capital of the Netherlands.

Since the constitutional revision, the constitution mentions "Amsterdam" and "capital" in chapter 2, article The king's confirmation by oath and his coronation take place in "the capital Amsterdam" " de hoofdstad Amsterdam ".

The ceremony traditionally takes place at the Nieuwe Kerk on Dam Square , immediately after the former monarch has signed the act of abdication at the nearby Royal Palace of Amsterdam.

Normally, however, the Parliament sits in The Hague , the city which has historically been the seat of the Dutch government , the Dutch monarchy , and the Dutch supreme court.

Foreign embassies are also located in The Hague. The coat of arms of Amsterdam is composed of several historical elements.

First and centre are three St Andrew's crosses , aligned in a vertical band on the city's shield although Amsterdam's patron saint was Saint Nicholas.

These St Andrew's crosses can also be found on the cityshields of neighbours Amstelveen and Ouder-Amstel.

This part of the coat of arms is the basis of the flag of Amsterdam , flown by the city government, but also as civil ensign for ships registered in Amsterdam.

Second is the Imperial Crown of Austria. In , out of gratitude for services and loans, Maximilian I awarded Amsterdam the right to adorn its coat of arms with the king's crown.

Then, in , this was replaced with Maximilian's imperial crown when he was crowned Holy Roman Emperor.

In the early years of the 17th century, Maximilian's crown in Amsterdam's coat of arms was again replaced, this time with the crown of Emperor Rudolph II , a crown that became the Imperial Crown of Austria.

The lions date from the late 16th century, when city and province became part of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.

Last came the city's official motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig "Heroic, Determined, Merciful" , bestowed on the city in by Queen Wilhelmina , in recognition of the city's bravery during the Second World War.

Currently, there are sixteen tram routes and five metro routes. All are operated by municipal public transport operator Gemeentelijk Vervoerbedrijf GVB , which also runs the city bus network.

Four fare-free GVB ferries carry pedestrians and cyclists across the IJ lake to the borough of Amsterdam-Noord , and two fare-charging ferries run east and west along the harbour.

There are also privately operated water taxis, a water bus, a boat sharing operation, electric rental boats and canal cruises, that transport people along Amsterdam's waterways.

Regional buses, and some suburban buses, are operated by Connexxion and EBS. Amsterdam was intended in to be the hub, a kind of Kilometre Zero , of the highway system of the Netherlands , [] with freeways numbered One to Eight planned to originate from the city.

The A3 to Rotterdam was cancelled in in order to conserve the Groene Hart. Road A8 , leading north to Zaandam and the A10 Ringroad were opened between and The A10 ringroad surrounding the city connects Amsterdam with the Dutch national network of freeways.

Interchanges on the A10 allow cars to enter the city by transferring to one of the 18 city roads , numbered S through to S These city roads are regional roads without grade separation , and sometimes without a central reservation.

Most are accessible by cyclists. The S Centrumring is a smaller ringroad circumnavigating the city's centre.

In the city centre, driving a car is discouraged. Parking fees are expensive, and many streets are closed to cars or are one-way. Amsterdam is served by ten stations of the Nederlandse Spoorwegen Dutch Railways.

Amsterdam Centraal is also an international railway station. Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is less than 20 minutes by train from Amsterdam Centraal station and is served by domestic and international intercity trains, such as Thalys , Eurostar and Intercity Brussel.

Schiphol is the largest airport in the Netherlands, the third largest in Europe, and the 14th-largest in the world in terms of passengers.

It handles over 68 million passengers per year and is the home base of four airlines, KLM , Transavia , Martinair and Arkefly.

Although Schiphol is internationally known as Amsterdam Schiphol Airport it actually lies in the neighbouring municipality of Haarlemmermeer, southwest of the city.

Amsterdam is one of the most bicycle-friendly large cities in the world and is a centre of bicycle culture with good facilities for cyclists such as bike paths and bike racks , and several guarded bike storage garages fietsenstalling which can be used.

Previously, wildly different figures were arrived at using a Wisdom of the crowd approach. Other institutions for higher education include an art school — Gerrit Rietveld Academie , a university of applied sciences — the Hogeschool van Amsterdam , and the Amsterdamse Hogeschool voor de Kunsten.

Amsterdam's International Institute of Social History is one of the world's largest documentary and research institutions concerning social history , and especially the history of the labour movement.

Amsterdam's Hortus Botanicus , founded in the early 17th century, is one of the oldest botanical gardens in the world, [] with many old and rare specimens, among them the coffee plant that served as the parent for the entire coffee culture in Central and South America.

There are over primary schools in Amsterdam. Many schools, however, are based on religion. This used to be primarily Roman Catholicism and various Protestant denominations, but with the influx of Muslim immigrants there has been a rise in the number of Islamic schools.

Jewish schools can be found in the southern suburbs of Amsterdam. Amsterdam is noted for having five independent grammar schools Dutch: gymnasia , the Vossius Gymnasium , Barlaeus Gymnasium , St.

Ignatius Gymnasium , Het 4e Gymnasium and the Cygnus Gymnasium where a classical curriculum including Latin and classical Greek is taught.

Though believed until recently by many to be an anachronistic and elitist concept that would soon die out, the gymnasia have recently experienced a revival, leading to the formation of a fourth and fifth grammar school in which the three aforementioned schools participate.

Most secondary schools in Amsterdam offer a variety of different levels of education in the same school. The city also has various colleges ranging from art and design to politics and economics which are mostly also available for students coming from other countries.

Amsterdam is a prominent centre for national and international media. However, Amsterdam is not considered 'the media city of the Netherlands'.

The town of Hilversum , 30 kilometres 19 miles south-east of Amsterdam, has been crowned with this unofficial title. Hilversum is the principal centre for radio and television broadcasting in the Netherlands.

Radio Netherlands , heard worldwide via shortwave radio since the s, is also based there. Hilversum is home to an extensive complex of audio and television studios belonging to the national broadcast production company NOS, as well as to the studios and offices of all the Dutch public broadcasting organisations and many commercial TV production companies.

Amsterdam is also featured in John Green 's book The Fault in Our Stars , which has been made into a film as well that partly takes place in Amsterdam.

The housing market is heavily regulated. The increased influx of migrants, especially since the Syrian Civil War present , has been burdensome, economically and culturally, but the government deals with citizen and migrant cases for housing equally.

No different treatment for migrant groups". From the late s onwards many buildings in Amsterdam have been squatted both for housing and for using as social centres.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Amsterdam disambiguation. Capital and largest city of the Netherlands. Capital city and municipality in North Holland, Netherlands.

The answer is both. The official name of the country in which Amsterdam is located is the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Within the Netherlands, there are 12 administrative provinces, two of which contain the name Holland.

Amsterdam lies in Noord-Holland or North Holland. Zuid-Holland , or South Holland, lies just south, of course, and includes the Netherlands' official seat of government, the city of Den Haag.

Amsterdam is the capital of the Netherlands, though major government buildings are located in the Hague. Amsterdam is a draw for art history buffs.

Also, in the museum quarter, you can visit the Van Gogh Museum dedicated to one of the most famous Dutch painters.

Amsterdam is also famous for its canals, barges, and bridges. Amsterdam has retained of its historic canals, and you can take a canal boat tour.

Seeing the old homes and architecture from the water is an ideal way to orient yourself to this historic city. Not far from Amsterdam is Keukenhof Gardens.

You can take a tour or even a city bus to get there. Keukenhof is exceptionally beautiful in spring when the tulips are blooming, but you can visit the bulb gardens other times of the year.

Daffodils are usually blooming in February. Amsterdam's Red Light District is probably the only such district that is also a famous tourist attraction.

Holland hat mehr zu bieten als Amsterdam! Wenn auch ihr auf der Suche nach Alternativen zur weltbekannten Grachtenstadt seid, bekommt ihr in diesem Artikel​. Erleben Sie die Niederlande aus der Vogelperspektive bei THIS IS HOLLAND. Erfahren Sie mehr über die niederländische Geschichte & genießen Sie die. THIS IS HOLLAND: Das ultimative Flugerlebnis ist ein einzigartiges Flugerlebnis in Amsterdam. Er zeigt Ihnen nicht nur die Niederlande, Sie können sie leben. Amsterdam (von vielen Einheimischen auch kurz A´dam genannt) liegt im Nordwesten von Holland, in der Provinz Nordholland. In Amsterdam münden die​.

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Februar Mit einer guten Grundlage im Bauch könnt ihr euch dann ins Enscheder Nachtleben stürzen, das mit angesagten Diskotheken und Bars rund um den Oude Markt lockt. Veranstaltungen in Amsterdam 18 Apr. Jahrhundert an. Die Anstrengungen lohnen sich! Alinda bevorzugt Authentizität und Geselligkeit. Jahrhundert gegründet und ist somit die älteste Uni der Niederlande. Der Name der Stadt leitet sich von einem im Amsterdam Holland

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Die Universiteit Leidenan der Rembrandt studierte, wurde bereits im Es gibt aber verschiedene Theorien, die von Historikern als plausibel article source werden, bisher jedoch nicht weiter belegt werden können. We are very happy to read you and the students fully enjoyed the Amsterdam Holland experience. Weiterhin sind viele Fassaden leicht nach vorne geneigt, das ist go here so gewollt und wird op vlucht gebaut link. Was möchten Sie in Amsterdam unternehmen? Der Fischfang, anfangs die bedeutendste Erwerbsquelle, wich allmählich dem Handel, vor allem mit getrocknetem oder gepökeltem Hering von der schwedischen Südküste und mit Bier aus Hamburgfür das Amsterdam ein Importmonopol erhielt. Berlin, Deutschland 46 Beiträge 6 more info. Amsterdam ist wirklich einzigartig! Die Anstrengungen lohnen sich! Grachtenfestival Bis zum 16 Aug. Sie können Holland auch auf dem Rad entdecken. Die Gemeinde Amsterdam hat Eine Grachtenrundfahrt bietet den besten Blickwinkel für Amsterdams interessanteste Sehenswürdigkeiten. Die Die valuable Mrgreen.De Kostenlos Spielen were Bedeutung des Wappens ist unbekannt. Solche Deiche entstanden auch andernorts entlang der Zuiderzee. Das heutige Wappen nahm die Stadt im Karte ansehen und Besuch planen. Sein Sohn Jan van Amstel nutzte eine flandrische Invasion Amsterdam Holland Holland, um sich von diesem loszusagen, wurde jedoch nach Abzug der Flamen unterworfen und musste die Stadtmauern schleifen und die Brücken zerstören; der Ort verlor alle Handelsprivilegien. Sounds like you had click at this page great time at our Experience. Anzahl der Karten.

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